4 Abnormalities in Alzheimer’s Brain

Alzheimer’s disease, a common form of dementia, affects millions of people worldwide, causing memory loss and cognitive decline. In this blog post, I discuss four key abnormalities in the Alzheimer’s brain that contribute to its progression. These abnormalities are amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, loss of neuronal connections, and chronic inflammation.

Here Are the 4 Abnormalities in Alzheimer’s Brain

1. Amyloid Plaques

The first abnormality we’ll delve into is amyloid plaques. Picture these plaques as unusual clumps found between nerve cells in the brain. They are like messy gatherings of a protein called beta amyloid, along with bits of neurons and other cells that aren’t functioning as they should.

Imagine your brain cells as a busy network of messengers, constantly passing along information. Amyloid plaques disrupt this communication by building up in the spaces where the messages should flow smoothly. It’s like trying to talk on a phone with a bad connection – the information gets lost or delayed, leading to problems with memory and thinking.

2. Neurofibrillary Tangles

Now, let’s talk about neurofibrillary tangles. These are twisted and knotted threads that form inside brain cells. Think of them as tiny roadblocks that hinder the normal functioning of these cells. Neurofibrillary tangles are made up of a protein called tau, which is essential for the structure of the cell.

In a healthy brain, tau acts like a supportive scaffold, helping the cell maintain its shape and structure. However, in Alzheimer’s, something goes wrong, and tau proteins start clumping together, creating tangles. This disrupts the cell’s structure and prevents it from functioning properly, contributing to the overall decline in brain function.

3. Loss of Neuronal Connections and Cell Death

As Alzheimer’s progresses, another significant abnormality occurs – the loss of neuronal connections and cell death. Imagine your brain as a bustling city, with different neighborhoods representing various functions like memory, language, and problem-solving. Neurons are like the roads connecting these neighborhoods, allowing information to flow freely.

In Alzheimer’s, these connections break down. Neurons lose their ability to communicate effectively, and some even die off. It’s akin to roads deteriorating and neighborhoods becoming isolated. This results in the decline of cognitive abilities, impacting everything from remembering loved ones to carrying out everyday tasks.

4. Chronic Inflammation

The fourth abnormality we’ll explore is chronic inflammation. When you think of inflammation, you might picture a swollen ankle after a sprain. In the brain, inflammation is the body’s response to injury or infection, involving the activation of immune cells.

In Alzheimer’s, however, inflammation becomes chronic, persisting over an extended period. It’s like having a persistent, low-grade fever that won’t go away. This ongoing inflammation damages healthy brain cells and exacerbates the other abnormalities, further contributing to the progression of the disease.


Understanding the four abnormalities in the Alzheimer’s brain – amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, loss of neuronal connections, and chronic inflammation – provides insight into the complex nature of this devastating disease. While there is still much to learn about Alzheimer’s, researchers are actively working to find ways to slow or halt its progression. By unraveling the mysteries of these abnormalities, we move closer to developing effective treatments and, ultimately, finding a cure for Alzheimer’s disease.

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